True architectural design of the atlanto-occipital joints (AKA: O/A joints)

See also:   ATLAS   FACETS   AXIS   SKULL   TEXTBOOK ERRORS

Compare actual design of atlanto-occipital facets ...

Occipital condyles surrounding foramen magnum

(also see at right)
Human atlas; superior view


(also see at right)
... with anatomy textbook errors:

Source: McMinn's color atlas of Human Anatomy.
Copyright © 1998

Online anatomy textbook errors:
SUPERIOR VIEW OF THE ATLAS (C1)

(NOTICE SINGULARITY OF SUPERIOR
FACET; THEY SHOULD LIST TWO
FACETS PER SIDE. PLEASE COMPARE.)


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Detailed composites of atlanto-occipital facets:

Articular facets of the occipital condyles

(also see at left)

Superior articular facets of the atlas

(also see at left)

Definition: Atlanto-occipital joint - One of two joints, each formed by a superior articular pit of the atlas and a condyle of the occipital bone. [This definition is from Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary © 1994. It is outdated since we now (1985) know that the atlanto-occipital joint is actually a single complex of two pair of articulating facet surfaces (one complex per side on both the atlas and the condyles - see above) with separate capsular membranes that connect to create a hinge of the isthmuses.]

The definition should read: Occipital-atlas (O/A) joint - One of two joint complexes, each formed by an adjacent pair of articular facets of the occipital condyle and an adjacent pair of superior articular facets of the atlas.
(See pictures above.)

Offsite information regarding atlanto-occipital joints:
Virtual Hospital: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus V: Skeletal System: Occipital Bone (see first sentence of document) - I contend that this observation is the NORMAL design of the joints; this change in knowledge is just coming about VERY slowly. And, as Grandpa used to say, 'they don't yet understand what this means, or, what to do about it' ... all the more reason to demand the original.


NOTICE

Proofs
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Craton's articles on atlanto-occipital dissection (1985)
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See also:   ATLAS   FACETS   AXIS   SKULL   TEXTBOOK ERRORS

Judge for yourself!

ERRORS ONLINE:
(1) From GateWay Community College
Phoenix, AZ
Created by Dr. J. Crimando
SUPERIOR VIEW OF THE ATLAS (C1)
(NOTICE SINGULARITY OF SUPERIOR
FACET; THEY SHOULD LIST TWO
FACETS PER SIDE. PLEASE COMPARE.)


(2) From Clinical Imaging Diagnosis:
DAVID, atlas of human anatomy
Developed by J. C. Oberson MD.
ATLAS, SUPERIOR VIEW

Yes, I am fully aware that the three links directly above are no longer working. I do not know for sure that my linking to them is what caused for them to no longer be available. But I do know that it only took about two weeks after I did link to them for their site to disappear. I am hoping that they will be returning in the near future.



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This page was first created in the summer of 1999 and last revised on August 24, 2011.


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Copyright © 1999 - 2011 by Tammy Joy Kennedy. All rights reserved. DISCLAIMER: The Smoke & Mirrors graphic belongs to the NewsOK Blogging Community.